List of All Civil Engineering Formulas

All Civil Engineering Formulas List

Cantilever Beam Stiffness

Formula Used:


Stiffness (k) = (3 × E × I ) / l3

Where,

E - Young's Modulus
I - Area Moment of Inertia
l - Length

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Colebrook White Equation

Formula :


Colebrook White Equation Formula
where,
S - hydraulic gradient,
v - kinematic viscosity of water,
D - Internal diameter,
Ks - Roughness coefficient,
g = 9.81 m/s2,
A - Area of section.

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Cantilever Beam Slope, Deflection With Couple Moment

Formula Used:



Slope at free end = ML / EI
Deflection at any section = Mx2 / 2EI


Where,
M is the couple moment at the free end,
E is the Elastic Modulus,
I is the Area moment of Inertia,
L is the Length of the beam and
x is the position of the load.

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Cantilever Beam Slope, Deflection with Uniformly Distributed Load

Formula Used:


Slope at free end = PL3 / 6EI
Deflection at any section = Px2( x3 + 6L2 - 4Lx ) / 24EI


Where,

P is the externally applied load,
E is the Elastic Modulus,
I is the Area moment of Inertia,
L is the Length of the beam and
x is the position of the load

Related Calculator:

Cantilever Beam Slope, Deflection for Uniform Load

Formula Used:
Slope at free end = P0L3 / 6EI
Deflection at any section = P0x2 ( x3 + 6L2 - 4Lx ) / 24EI
P0 = PL / (L-x)


Where,
P0 is the Maximum intensity,
P is the Externally applied load,
E is the Elastic Modulus,
I is the Area moment of Inertia,
L is the Length of the beam and
x is the position of the load.

Related Calculator:

Cantilever Beam Slope, Deflection for Load at Free End

Formula


Slope at free end = PL2 / 2EI
Deflection at any section = Px2(3L-x) / 6EI


Where,

P is the externally applied load,
E is the Elastic Modulus,
I is the Area moment of Inertia,
L is the Length of the beam and
x is the position of the load

Related Calculator:

Cantilever Beam Slope, Deflection for Load at Any Point

Formula Used:


Slope at free end = Pa2 / 2EI
Deflection at any section = Px2(3a-x) / 6EI(for x less than a)
Deflection at any section = Pa2(3x-a) / 6EI(for a less than x)


Where,

P is the externally applied load,
E is the Elastic Modulus,
I is the Area moment of Inertia,
Lis the Length of the beam and
x is the position of the load
a is the distance of load from one end of the support

Related Calculator:

Feet and Inches Arithmetic

Formula Used:


Multiplication = ( (Value1-ft X 12) + in) X ( (Value2-ft X 12) + in) Addition = ( (Value1-ft X 12) + in) + ( (Value2-ft X 12) + in) Subtraction = ( (Value1-ft X 12) + in) - ( (Value2-ft X 12) + in) Division = ( (Value1-ft X 12) + in) / ( (Value2-ft X 12) + in)

Where,

ft - Feet
in - Inches

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Flexible Pavement Structural Number

Formula:


L=a1ta + b1tb + c1tsb +d1tad

Where,

L=Structural Number of Flexible pavement,
a1=Layer coefficient for asphalt ,
ta=Asphalt layer thickness,
b1=Layer coefficient of base,
tb=Base layer thickness ,
c1=Layer coefficient of sub-base,
tsb=Sub-base layer thickness,
d1=Layer coefficient of additional layer,
tad=Thickness of additional layer

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Vertical Curve Offset Distance

Formula Used:

E = [ L x (g2 - g1) ] / 8

Minimum Curve Length


Where,

E - Vertical Offset
g1 - Initial grade
g2 - Final grade
L - Length of the curve

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Vertical Curve Length

Formula Used:
Lm = [ S² × (g2 − g1) ] / 864 ∀ S<Lm
Lm = 2S - [ 864 / (g2 − g1) ] ∀ S>Lm


Where,    
Lm - Minimum Curve length    
g1 - Initial grade    
g2 - Final grade    
S - Passing Sight Distance
Minimum Curve Length

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Crest Vertical Curve Length

Formula Used:


Lm = ( A×S² ) / ( 200 × (√h1 + √h2)² ) ∀ S<Lm
Lm = 2S − { ( 200 × (√h1 + √h2)² ) / A } ∀ S>Lm


Where,

A - Absolute difference between g2 and g1
S - Sight Distance
Lm - Minimum Curve Length
h1 - Height of driver's eye above roadway surface
h2 - Height of object above roadway surface
Minimum Curve Length

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SAG Vertical Curve Length

Formula Used:
Lm = ( A×S² ) / ( 200 × (H + S ×tanβ) ) ∀ S<Lm
Lm = 2S − { ( 200 × (H + S ×tanβ) ) / A } ∀ S>Lm

If S > L, then the first formula is used, if L > S, then the second formula is used.

Where,

A - Absolute difference between g2 and g1
S - Sight Distance
Lm - Minimum Curve Length
H - Height of headlight
β - Angle of Headlight Beam

Related Calculator:

Rate of Change Vertical Curve

Formula Used:


r = (g2 − g1) / L

Where,

r - Rate of change of grade
g1 - Initial roadway grade
g2 - Final roadway grade
L - Length of the curve
Minimum Curve Length

Related Calculator:

Transportation Highways Horizontal Curve


Formula


R = 5729.58 / D
T = R * tan ( A/2 )
L = 100 * ( A/D )
LC = 2 * R *sin (A/2)
E = R ( (1/(cos (A/2) ) ) - 1 ) )
M = R ( 1 - cos (A/2) )
PC = PI - T
PT = PC + L


Where,

D = Degree of Curve, Arc Definition
1° = 1 Degree of Curve
2° = 2 Degrees of Curve
P.C. = Point of Curve
P.T. = Point of Tangent
P.I. = Point of Intersection
A = Intersection Angle, Angle between two tangents
L = Length of Curve, from P.C. to P.T.
T = Tangent Distance
E = External Distance
R = Radius
L.C. = Length of Long Chord
M = Length of Middle Ordinate
c = Length of Sub-Chord
k = Length of Arc for Sub-Chord
d = Angle of Sub-Chord

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Elevation Point of Vertical Curve


Formula Used:

y = epvc + g1x + [ (g2 − g1) ×x² / 2L ]

Where,
y - elevation of point of vertical tangency
epvc - Initial Elevation
g1 - Initial grade
g2 - Final grade
x/L - Length of the curve
Minimum Curve Length

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Vehicle Stopping Distance

Formula Used:


Stopping Distance =(v×t) + { v² / [2×g×(f±G)] }

Where,

g - gravity (9.8)
v - Vehicle Speed
t - perception Time
G - Grade of Road
f+G - Grade of Uphill
f-G - Grade of Downhill

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Spiral Curve Tangent Distance

Formula Used:


Y = L − { L5 / ( 40×R²×Ls²) }

Where,
Y - Tangent distance to any point on the spiral
L - Length of spiral from tangent to any point
Ls - Length of spiral
R - Radius of Simple Curve
spiral transition curve

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Spiral Curve Deflection Angle

Formula Used:


i = L² / ( 6×R×Ls)

Where,
i - Tangent deflection angle to any point on the curve
L - Length of spiral from tangent to any point
Ls - Length of spiral
R - Radius of Simple Curve
spiral curve

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Earthwork Cross Sectional Area

Formula Used:
Area of Cross Section

Where,    
A - Area of cross section    
Xi - Horizontal axis    
Yi - Vertical axis    
n - Number of points on cross section

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Earthwork Cross Section Volume


Formula Used:

V = ((A1 + A2) ×L) / 2

Where,

L - Length between two areas
A1 - Cross section area of first side
A2 - Cross section area of second side
V - Eathwork Volume

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Concrete Slab Maximum Length

Formula


L = ( 0.00047hr (fsS) ^2 ) ^ ( 1/3 )

Where,

L = Slab Length,
hr = Thickness of reinforced slab,
fs = Yield strength of steel reinforcement,
S = Steel reinforcing ratio

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Concrete Slab Volume

Formula Used:


Volume of concrete Slab = w × l × t

Where,

l - Length
w - Width
t - Thickness

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Concrete Slab Maximum Wall Load


Formula:

P = 9.93 ( fc^0.5 )( te^2 ) ( ( k / (19000 ( fc^0.5 )( te^3 ) ) ) ^ 0.25

Where,

fc = Concrete compressive strength,
k = Modulus of subgrade reaction,
te = Slab thickness.

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Maximum Floor Load Capacity

Formula:


w = 257.876s ( kh / E ) ^ 0.5

Where
,
w = Maximum Allowable Stationary Live Load,
k = Modulus of subgrade reaction,
h = Thickness of slab,
s = Allowable extreme fiber stress in tension,
E = Modulus of elasticity.

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Concrete Footing Volume

Formula Used:


Volume of concrete Footer = [ (ow × ol) − (iw × il) ] × t

Where,

ol - Outside Length
ow - Outside Width
il - Inside Length
iw - Inside Width
t - Thickness

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Number of Cubic Yards Required for Concrete Column Fill

Formula:


Radius = diameter/24 cubic yards = (height*(radius)2*22/7)/27

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Concrete Footing

Formulas Used:


Footing Pours = ( Diameter * ( Width / 12 ) ) * ( Depth / 12 ) / 27 );

Related Calculator:

Concrete Volume

Formula:


Concrete Volume = [( 22/7 )r2 * depth ) / 27 ] * Quantity

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Block Wall Cubic Yards

Formula:

For size = 8inch
Cubic Yards to be filled = (L * W * 0.32 / 27);
For size = 12inch
Cubic Yards to be filled = (L * W * 0.51 / 27);

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Cubic Yards of Circular Stepping Stones

Formula:


Single Stepping Stone = (Π X r2 X h) / 46656


Where,

h = Depth in inches
r = d / 2
d = Diameter in inches

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Cubic Yards of Rectangular Stepping Stones

Formula:


Single Stepping Stone = (l X b X h) / 324


Where,

l = Length in feet
b = Width in feet
h = Depth in inches

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Cubic Yards of Triangular Stepping Stones

Formula:


Single Stepping Stone = (l X b X h) / 648


Where,

l = Length in feet
b = Width in feet
h = Depth in inches

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Block

Formula:

Number Of Blocks = (Length × Width) / Block Size

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Concrete Mix Ratio

Formula:

Volume= Width × Height × Depth
Cement = Volume × 320
Sharp Sand= Volume × 600
Gravel = Volume× 1200
Water = Volume × 176

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Concrete Wall

Formula:

Concrete Wall (CW) = (Length × Thickness × Height) × 0.037037

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Concrete Driveways Cost

Formula:

Rectangle,
C = L × W × T × R
Circle,
C = π × (M/2)2 × T × R
Footing,
C = L × W × D × R
Circular column,
C = π × (M/2)2 × D × R


Where,

C = Total Cost Of Concrete Driveways
L = Length(yard)
W = Width(yard)
T = Thickness(yard)
R = Cost
D = Depth(yard)
M=Diameter(yard)

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Safe Speed For Horizontal Curve

Formula:

If Safe speed of Horizontal Curve greater than 50 mph
Safe Speed for Horizontal curve ( V > 50mph ) = ( ( ( -0.03 × r ) + ( √ (((.03 × r) × (.03 × r)) + ((4 × r) × ((15 × (e / 100)) + 3.6))))) / 2)

If Safe speed of horizontal curve less than 50 mph
Safe Speed for Horizontal curve ( V < 50mph ) = ((( -.015 × rhname ) + ( √ ((( .015 × rhname ) × ( .015 × rhname )) + ((4 × rhname) × (( 15 × ( ehname / 100 )) + 2.85 ))))) / 2);


Where,

r = Radius of Horizontal Curve(ft)
e = Superelevation

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Cornering Force

Formula:

t = u × m × g × sin(a)
f = ( u × m × g × sin(a) ) + ( m × g × cos(a) )
v = √ (((( u × m × g × sin(a) ) + ( m × g × cos(a) )) × r ) / m )


Where,

t = Static Friction
u = Static Friction's Coefficient
m = Mass of Vehicle (kg)
g = Gravity Accelaration
r = Radius (m)
f = Total Net Force
v = Maximum Speed
a = Slope of the Road

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Concrete Driveway

Formula:

A = l × b
P = 2 × (l+b)


Where,

A = Drive way Area
P = Drive way Perimeter
l = Length
b = width

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Roof Slope

Formula:

Run(inches)= ( 12 × Rise ) / Roof Pitch
Slope = ( Rise / Run ) × 100
Angle = tan-1( Rise / Run )

Related Calculator:

Roof Angle

Formula:

Run(inches) = ( Rise / Slope ) × 100
Angle = tan-1( Rise /Run )
Roof Pitch = ( Rise /(Run/12) )

Related Calculator:

Roof Pitch

Formula:

Pitch = S / ( N / 12 )
Slope = ( S / N ) × 100
Angle = tan-1 ( S / N )



Where,

S = Rise (inches)
N = Run (inches)

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Rise Run Slope

Formula:

Run(inches) = Rise / tan(angle)
Roof Pitch = Rise / ( Run/ 12 )
Slope = ( Rise / Run) × 100

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Curve Surveying

Formula:

l = π × r × i / 180
t = r × tan(i / 2)
e = ( r / cos(i / 2)) -r
c = 2 × r × sin(i / 2)
m = r - (r (cos(i / 2)))
d = 5729.58 / r


Where,

i = Deflection Angle
l = Length of Curve
r = Radius
t = Length of Tangent
e = External Distance
c = Length of Long Chord
m = Middle Ordinate
d = Degree of Curve Approximate

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lb/ft<sup>3</sup> to kN/m<sup>3</sup> Conversion

Formula:

T = S × (9.81 kN/m³ / 62.4 lb/ft³)


Where,

T = Total Unit Weight in kN/m³
S = Total Unit Weight in lb/ft³

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Insulation

Formula:

Approximate Sq.Ft Needed = Area Width × Area Height

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Trapezoidal Footing Volume

Formula:

V = h / 3(A1 + A2 + √(A1 * A2))


Where,

V = Volume of Trapezoid Footing
h = Height of Trapezoidal
A1 = Area of the Lower Shape
A2 = Area of the Upper Shape
A1 = m x n (Lower Height x Lower Breadth)
A2 = o x p (Upper Height x Upper Breadth)

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Concrete Yardage

Formula:

Concrete Yardage = L × W × H/12 × 0.037037


Where,

W = Width(ft)
L = Length(ft)
H =Thickness(inch)

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Curb and Gutter Barrier Concrete Yardage

Formula:

Concrete Yardage = (l×(f/12.0×(g/12.0+h/12.0))+l×(h/12.0×h/12.0)) × 0.037037


Where,

l = Length(ft)
f = Flag Thickness(inch)
g = Gutter Width(inch)
h = Curb Height(inch)

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Concrete Wall

Formula:

Concrete Yardage = Length × Height × (Thickness /12) × 0.037037

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Concrete Footing Yard

Formula:

Concrete Yardage = Length × Width(inch) /12 × Height(inch) /12 × 0.037037

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Concrete Yards

Formula:

c =((((n × t/12.0)×(n×r/12.0))/2)+((n×(t/12.0×r/12.0))/2))×w × 0.037037


Where,

c = Concrete Yardage
n = Number of stairs
t = Tread(inch)
r = Riser(inch)
w = Width(ft)

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Concrete Volume

Formula:

V = H x B x W
T = M + N + O
X = (M / T) x V
Y = (N / T) x V
Z = (O / T) x V


Where,

H = Height of Concrete
W = Width of Concrete
B = Breadth of Concrete
M = Cement Ratio
N = Sand Ratio
O = Coarse Ratio
V = Volume of Concrete
T = Total Ratio of ingredients
X = Cement Quantity
Y = Sand Quantity
Z = Coarse Quantity

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Plaster

Formula:

V = A x T
X = V x 1.54
C = X x (M / G)
S = X x (N / G)


Where,

T = Plastering Thickness
V = Volume of Cement Mortar
A = Area of Plastering
M = Ratio of Plastering Cement
N = Ratio of Plastering Sand
C = Cement Required (1 Part)
S = Sand Required (5 Part)
X = 35% Sand Bulkage
G = Total ratio (M+N )

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Floor Tile

Formula:

Perimeter of Room = (2 x ( Room length + Room breadth)) - Door width

Skirting Tiles Area = Perimeter of Room x Skirting Tiles Height

Area of Room = Room length x Room Breadth

Total Area to be Laid = Area of Room + Skirting Tiles Area

Area of Tiles = Tiles length + Tiles Breadth

Number of Tiles We Need = (Total Area to be Laid / Area of Tiles) x Tiles Wastage%

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