Thulium Element Properties

Thulium

f68
Er
Erbium
f69
Tm
Thulium
f70
Yb
Ytterbium
General
Name(Thulium)
Symbol(Tm)
Number(69)
Group Number(NA)
Group(Rare Earth, Lanthanides)
Block(f)
Density(9.33 g/cm3)
Atomic Weight(168.9342 g/mol)
Atomic Volume(18.1)
Discover(1879)


States
State(Solid)
Melting Point(1818 K)
Boiling Point(2223 K)
Triple Point(Nil)
Critical Point(Nil)
Heat of Fusion(16.84 kJ/mol)
Heat of Vaporization(247 kJ/mol)


Energies
First Ionization Energy(596.7 kJ/mole)
Second Ionization Energy(1163 kJ/mole)
Third Ionization Energy(2544 kJ/mole)
Electronegativity(1.25)
Electron Affinity(50 kJ/mole)
Specific Heat(0.16 J/gK)
Heat Atomization(232 kJ/mole atoms)


Oxidation and Electrons
Shells(2,8,18,31,8,2)
Electron Configuration([Xe] 4f13 6s2)
Minimum Oxidation Number(0)
Maximum Oxidation Number(3)
Minimum Common Oxidation Number(0)
Maximum Common Oxidation Number(3)


Appearance and Characteristics
Crystal Structure(hexagonal)
Characteristics(soft)
Color(silvery-white)
Uses(alloys)
Hardness(Nil)
Toxicity(None)


Reactions
Reaction with Air(vigorous, =>Tm2O3)
Reaction with 6M HCl(mild, =>H2, TmCl3)
Reaction with 15M HNO3(mild, =>Tm(NO3)3)
Reaction with 6M NaOH(None)


Other Forms
Number of Isotopes(1)
Hydride(TmH2 TmH3)
Oxide(Tm2O3)
Chloride(TmCl2 TmCl3)


Radius
Atomic Radius(176 pm)
Ionic Radius (1+ ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (1- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2+ ion)(117 pm)
Ionic Radius (2- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (3+ ion)(102 pm)


Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity(16.9 J/m-sec-deg)
Electrical Conductivity(13.5 1/mohm-cm)
Polarizability(21.8 A3)


Abundance
Source(Monazite(phosphate),bastnaesite)
Relation Abundance Solar System(-1.423 log)
Abundance Earths Crust(-0.3 log)


f68
Er
Erbium
f69
Tm
Thulium
f70
Yb
Ytterbium

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