Thorium Element Properties

Thorium

f89
Ac
Actinium
f90
Th
Thorium
f91
Pa
Protactinium
General
Name(Thorium)
Symbol(Th)
Number(90)
Group Number(NA)
Group(Rare Earth, Actinides)
Block(f)
Density(11.7 g/cm3)
Atomic Weight(232.0381 g/mol)
Atomic Volume(19.9 cm3/mol)
Discover(1829)


States
State(Solid)
Melting Point(2115 K)
Boiling Point(5061 K)
Triple Point(Nil)
Critical Point(Nil)
Heat of Fusion(13.81 kJ/mol)
Heat of Vaporization(514 kJ/mol)


Energies
First Ionization Energy(587 kJ/mole)
Second Ionization Energy(1110 kJ/mole)
Third Ionization Energy(1930 kJ/mole)
Electronegativity(1.3)
Electron Affinity(Nil)
Specific Heat(0.12 J/gK)
Heat Atomization(576 kJ/mole atoms)


Oxidation and Electrons
Shells(2,8,18,32,18,10,2)
Electron Configuration([Rn] 6d2 7s2 6d2 7s2)
Minimum Oxidation Number(0)
Maximum Oxidation Number(4)
Minimum Common Oxidation Number(0)
Maximum Common Oxidation Number(4)


Appearance and Characteristics
Crystal Structure(cubic face centered)
Characteristics(Radioactive)
Color(white)
Uses(gas mantles (ThO2))
Hardness(Nil)
Toxicity(None)


Reactions
Reaction with Air(mild, w/ht ignites =>ThO2)
Reaction with 6M HCl(mild)
Reaction with 15M HNO3(passivated)
Reaction with 6M NaOH(None)


Other Forms
Number of Isotopes(3)
Hydride(ThH2 Th4H15)
Oxide(ThO2)
Chloride(ThCl4)


Radius
Atomic Radius(179 pm)
Ionic Radius (1+ ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (1- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2+ ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (3+ ion)(Nil)


Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity(54 J/m-sec-deg)
Electrical Conductivity(76.923 1/mohm-cm)
Polarizability(32.1 A3)


Abundance
Source(Monazite(phosphate),U extractn)
Relation Abundance Solar System(-1.475 log)
Abundance Earths Crust(1 log)


f89
Ac
Actinium
f90
Th
Thorium
f91
Pa
Protactinium

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