Thallium Element Properties

Thallium

d80
Hg
Mercury
p81
Tl
Thallium
p82
Pb
Lead
General
Name(Thallium)
Symbol(Tl)
Number(81)
Group Number(13)
Group(Metal)
Block(p)
Density(11.85 g/cm3)
Atomic Weight(204.37 g/mol)
Atomic Volume(17.2 cm3/mol)
Discover(1861)


States
State(Solid)
Melting Point(577 K)
Boiling Point(1746 K)
Triple Point(Nil)
Critical Point(Nil)
Heat of Fusion(4.14 kJ/mol)
Heat of Vaporization(165 kJ/mol)


Energies
First Ionization Energy(589.4 kJ/mole)
Second Ionization Energy(1971 kJ/mole)
Third Ionization Energy(2878 kJ/mole)
Electronegativity(1.83)
Electron Affinity(20 kJ/mole)
Specific Heat(0.13 J/gK)
Heat Atomization(182 kJ/mole atoms)


Oxidation and Electrons
Shells(2,8,18,32,18,3)
Electron Configuration([Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1)
Minimum Oxidation Number(0)
Maximum Oxidation Number(3)
Minimum Common Oxidation Number(0)
Maximum Common Oxidation Number(3)


Appearance and Characteristics
Crystal Structure(hexagonal)
Characteristics(soft)
Color(bluish-gray)
Uses(IR detectors, photomult.)
Hardness(1.2 mohs)
Toxicity(None)


Reactions
Reaction with Air(mild, =>Tl2O)
Reaction with 6M HCl(None)
Reaction with 15M HNO3(mild, =>TlNO3)
Reaction with 6M NaOH(None)


Other Forms
Number of Isotopes(2)
Hydride(None)
Oxide(Tl2O Tl2O3)
Chloride(TlCl TlCl3)


Radius
Atomic Radius(170 pm)
Ionic Radius (1+ ion)(164 pm)
Ionic Radius (1- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2+ ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (3+ ion)(102.5 pm)


Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity(46.1 J/m-sec-deg)
Electrical Conductivity(55.556 1/mohm-cm)
Polarizability(7.6 A3)


Abundance
Source(Zn/Pb smelting by-product)
Relation Abundance Solar System(-0.735 log)
Abundance Earths Crust(-0.3 log)


d80
Hg
Mercury
p81
Tl
Thallium
p82
Pb
Lead

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