Silicon Element Properties

Silicon

p13
Al
Aluminium
p14
Si
Silicon
p15
P
Phosphorus
General
Name(Silicon)
Symbol(Si)
Number(14)
Group Number(14)
Group(Non-Metal, Carbon group)
Block(p)
Density(2.33 g/cm3)
Atomic Weight(28.0855 g/mol)
Atomic Volume(12.1 cm3/mol)
Discover(1824)


States
State(Solid)
Melting Point(1687 K)
Boiling Point(3538 K)
Triple Point(Nil)
Critical Point(Nil)
Heat of Fusion(50.21 kJ/mol)
Heat of Vaporization(359 kJ/mol)


Energies
First Ionization Energy(786.4 kJ/mole)
Second Ionization Energy(1577 kJ/mole)
Third Ionization Energy(3231.5 kJ/mole)
Electronegativity(1.9)
Electron Affinity(133.6 kJ/mole)
Specific Heat(0.71 J/gK)
Heat Atomization(452 kJ/mole atoms)


Oxidation and Electrons
Shells(2,8,4)
Electron Configuration([Ne] 3s2 3p2)
Minimum Oxidation Number(-4)
Maximum Oxidation Number(4)
Minimum Common Oxidation Number(-4)
Maximum Common Oxidation Number(4)


Appearance and Characteristics
Crystal Structure(Diamond cubic)
Characteristics(semimetal)
Color(gray-black)
Uses(comp chip,lubricant,glass)
Hardness(7 mohs)
Toxicity(None)


Reactions
Reaction with Air(mild, =>SiO2)
Reaction with 6M HCl(None)
Reaction with 15M HNO3(None)
Reaction with 6M NaOH(mild, =>silicates)


Other Forms
Number of Isotopes(3)
Hydride(SiH4 Si2H6 + more)
Oxide(SiO2)
Chloride(SiCl4 Si2Cl6 + more)


Radius
Atomic Radius(117.6 pm)
Ionic Radius (1+ ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (1- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2+ ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (3+ ion)(Nil)


Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity(149 J/m-sec-deg)
Electrical Conductivity(0.012 1/mohm-cm)
Polarizability(5.4 A3)


Abundance
Source(Quartz (oxide))
Relation Abundance Solar System(6.000 log)
Abundance Earths Crust(5.5 log)


p13
Al
Aluminium
p14
Si
Silicon
p15
P
Phosphorus

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