Phosphorus Element Properties

Phosphorus

p14
Si
Silicon
p15
P
Phosphorus
p16
S
Sulfur
General
Name(Phosphorus)
Symbol(P)
Number(15)
Group Number(15)
Group(Non-Metal, Nitrogen group)
Block(p)
Density(1.82 g/cm3)
Atomic Weight(30.97376 g/mol)
Atomic Volume(17.0 cm3/mol)
Discover(1669)


States
State(solid)
Melting Point(317.3 K)
Boiling Point(550 K)
Triple Point(Nil)
Critical Point(Nil)
Heat of Fusion(0.66 kJ/mol)
Heat of Vaporization(12.4 kJ/mol)


Energies
First Ionization Energy(1011.7 kJ/mole)
Second Ionization Energy(1903.2 kJ/mole)
Third Ionization Energy(2911.9 kJ/mole)
Electronegativity(2.19)
Electron Affinity(72.07 kJ/mole)
Specific Heat(0.77 J/gK)
Heat Atomization(315 kJ/mole atoms)


Oxidation and Electrons
Shells(2,8,5)
Electron Configuration([Ne] 3s2 3p3)
Minimum Oxidation Number(-3)
Maximum Oxidation Number(5)
Minimum Common Oxidation Number(-3)
Maximum Common Oxidation Number(5)


Appearance and Characteristics
Crystal Structure(special: P4 tetrahedra)
Characteristics((P4) pyrophoric, 15 forms)
Color(white-yellow)
Uses(fertilizer, detergents)
Hardness(0.5 mohs)
Toxicity(Yes)


Reactions
Reaction with Air(vigorous,=>P4O10, ignites)
Reaction with 6M HCl(None)
Reaction with 15M HNO3(mild, =>NOx)
Reaction with 6M NaOH(mild, =>PH3, may ignite)


Other Forms
Number of Isotopes(1)
Hydride(PH3 P2H4 + more)
Oxide(P4O10 P4O6)
Chloride(PCl3 PCl5 P2Cl4)


Radius
Atomic Radius(110 pm)
Ionic Radius (1+ ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (1- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2+ ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (3+ ion)(58 pm)


Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity(0.24 J/m-sec-deg)
Electrical Conductivity(0 1/mohm-cm)
Polarizability(3.6 A3)


Abundance
Source(Apatite (phosphate))
Relation Abundance Solar System(4.017 log)
Abundance Earths Crust(3 log)


p14
Si
Silicon
p15
P
Phosphorus
p16
S
Sulfur

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