Germanium Element Properties

Germanium

p31
Ga
Gallium
p32
Ge
Germanium
p33
As
Arsenic
General
Name(Germanium)
Symbol(Ge)
Number(32)
Group Number(14)
Group(Metal, Carbon group)
Block(p)
Density(5.323 g/cm3)
Atomic Weight(72.59 g/mol)
Atomic Volume(13.6 cm3/mol)
Discover(1886)


States
State(Solid)
Melting Point(1211.40 K)
Boiling Point(3106 K)
Triple Point(Nil)
Critical Point(Nil)
Heat of Fusion(36.94 kJ/mol)
Heat of Vaporization(334 kJ/mol)


Energies
First Ionization Energy(762.1 kJ/mole)
Second Ionization Energy(1537.4 kJ/mole)
Third Ionization Energy(3301.7 kJ/mole)
Electronegativity(2.01)
Electron Affinity(120 kJ/mole)
Specific Heat(0.32 J/gK)
Heat Atomization(377 kJ/mole atoms)


Oxidation and Electrons
Shells(2,8,18,4)
Electron Configuration([Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2)
Minimum Oxidation Number(-4)
Maximum Oxidation Number(4)
Minimum Common Oxidation Number(-4)
Maximum Common Oxidation Number(4)


Appearance and Characteristics
Crystal Structure(Face-centered cubic)
Characteristics(semimetal, brittle)
Color(gray-black)
Uses(transistor, wide-ang lens)
Hardness(mohs)
Toxicity(None)


Reactions
Reaction with Air(mild, w/ht =>GeO2)
Reaction with 6M HCl(None)
Reaction with 15M HNO3(mild, =>Ge(IV), NOx)
Reaction with 6M NaOH(None)


Other Forms
Number of Isotopes(5)
Hydride(GeH4 Ge2H6 + more)
Oxide(GeO GeO2)
Chloride(GeCl2 GeCl4)


Radius
Atomic Radius(122.3 pm)
Ionic Radius (1+ ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (1- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2+ ion)(87 pm)
Ionic Radius (2- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (3+ ion)(Nil)


Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity(60.2 J/m-sec-deg)
Electrical Conductivity(0 1/mohm-cm)
Polarizability(6.1 A3)


Abundance
Source(Zn smelting by-product)
Relation Abundance Solar System(2.076 log)
Abundance Earths Crust(0.7 log)


p31
Ga
Gallium
p32
Ge
Germanium
p33
As
Arsenic

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