Gadolinium Element Properties

Gadolinium

f63
Eu
Europium
f64
Gd
Gadolinium
f65
Tb
Terbium
General
Name(Gadolinium)
Symbol(Gd)
Number(64)
Group Number(NA)
Group(Rare Earth, Lanthanides)
Block(f)
Density(7.895 g/cm3)
Atomic Weight(157.25 g/mol)
Atomic Volume(19.9 cm3/mol)
Discover(1880)


States
State(Solid)
Melting Point(1585 K)
Boiling Point(3546 K)
Triple Point(Nil)
Critical Point(Nil)
Heat of Fusion(10.05 kJ/mol)
Heat of Vaporization(301.3 kJ/mol)


Energies
First Ionization Energy(592.6 kJ/mole)
Second Ionization Energy(1167 kJ/mole)
Third Ionization Energy(1991 kJ/mole)
Electronegativity(1.17)
Electron Affinity(50 kJ/mole)
Specific Heat(0.23 J/gK)
Heat Atomization(398 kJ/mole atoms)


Oxidation and Electrons
Shells(2,8,18,25,9,2)
Electron Configuration([Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2)
Minimum Oxidation Number(0)
Maximum Oxidation Number(3)
Minimum Common Oxidation Number(0)
Maximum Common Oxidation Number(3)


Appearance and Characteristics
Crystal Structure(hexagonal)
Characteristics(None)
Color(silvery-white)
Uses(alloys, CD disk)
Hardness(Nil)
Toxicity(None)


Reactions
Reaction with Air(vigorous, =>Gd2O3)
Reaction with 6M HCl(mild, =>H2, GdCl3)
Reaction with 15M HNO3(mild, =>Gd(NO3)3)
Reaction with 6M NaOH(None)


Other Forms
Number of Isotopes(7)
Hydride(GdH2 GdH3)
Oxide(Gd2O3)
Chloride(GdCl3)


Radius
Atomic Radius(180 pm)
Ionic Radius (1+ ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (1- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2+ ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (2- ion)(Nil)
Ionic Radius (3+ ion)(107.8 pm)


Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity(10.5 J/m-sec-deg)
Electrical Conductivity(7.9 1/mohm-cm)
Polarizability(23.5 A3)


Abundance
Source(Monazite(phosphate),bastnaesite)
Relation Abundance Solar System(-0.481 log)
Abundance Earths Crust(0.7 log)


f63
Eu
Europium
f64
Gd
Gadolinium
f65
Tb
Terbium

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