The commutative property (or commutative law) is a property generally associated with binary operations and functions. If the commutative property holds for a pair of elements under a certain binary operation then the two elements are said to commute under that operation.

The addition of numbers is commutative.

**a + b = b + a**

The multiplication of numbers is commutative.

**a × b = b × a**

The subtraction of numbers is non-commutative.

**a - b ≠ b - a**

The division of numbers is non-commutative.

**a / b ≠ b / a**

Justify commutative addition rule when a is 12 and b is 3.
**Solution:**
12 + 3 = 15
3 + 12 = 15
**15 = 15**

Justify commutative multiplication rule when a is 12 and b is 3.
**Solution:**
12 × 3 = 36
3 × 12 = 36
**36 = 36**

Justify commutative subtraction rule when a is 12 and b is 3.
**Solution:**
12 - 3 = 9
3 - 12 = -9
**9 ≠ -9**

Justify commutative division rule when a is 12 and b is 3.
**Solution:**
12 / 3 = 4
3 / 12 = 1 / 4
= 0.25
**4 ≠ 0.25**